"Three and a half thousand years ago, the tiny Aegean island of Thera was devastated by one of the worst natural disasters since the Ice Age - a huge volcanic eruption." Source: BBC History.
"This cataclysm happened 100km from the island of Crete, the home of the thriving Minoan civilisation. Fifty years after the eruption, that civilisation was in ruins. Did the volcano deliver a death blow to the Minoans? It's a whodunnit that has haunted historians and scientists for decades."
Note: Some geologists believe that the Minoan Eruption was "the most powerful explosive event ever witnessed." (The video below describes it as the second most powerful). More information can be found at the Thera Foundation web site.
"It has been proposed...that the eruption, through the action of tephra fallout from the eruption column and through the generation of tsunamis, caused major damage to the island of Crete and was a significant factor in the decline of the Minoan culture," according to "The Eruption Of Santorini (Thera) In The Bronze Age," a 2001 PHD thesis by Dr. David Sewell. It has been speculated that this eruption could have inspired the legend of Atlantis.