"The original Neanderthal skeleton from the Neander Valley, the type specimen, dubbed Neanderthal 1, consisted of a skull cap, two femora, three bones from the right arm, two from the left arm, part of the left ilium, fragments of a scapula, and ribs. The workers who recovered this material originally thought it to be the remains of a bear." Source: Don's Maps. (Includes many photos of the skeletal fragments.)
According to the PNAS, "[as] the first extinct human relatives to have become known to science, the Neanderthals have assumed an almost iconic significance in human evolutionary studies: a significance that has, of course, been greatly enhanced by the very substantial fossil and behavioral record that has accumulated since the original Feldhofer Cave skullcap and partial skeleton were accidentally uncovered, on a pre-Darwinian August day in 1856, by lime miners working in Germany’s Neander Valley."